CYMBIDIUMS: 6n Polyploids

Cymbidiums Orchid Doctor

by Robert M. [Bert] Hamilton (Compiler)

Originally published in The Orchid Doctor in 1980 and 1988

Posted by Sys Admin over 7 years ago.

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New development with potential is the use of 6n crossed with diploids (2n) to produce tetraploids (4n); 6n plants were produced by treating triploids (3n) with colchicine; desirable features of 2n can now be introduded quickly. AU79-97
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More The Orchid Doctor Articles under the Heading Cymbidiums

Cymbidiums Comments
CYMBIDIUMS: Analysis of Hybridization Percentage composition of species in the lineage provides indication of exhibition quality of the flowers; assumptions of the criteria applied; the norm is 50% C. insigne, 25% C. lowianum, 25% C. eburneum; graphs provided; point scale provided; examples of application given; test samples; refer to OA79-84+ 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Backbulbs, Starting Pot them in perlite in plastic pots covering the bulbs to two-thirds of their height. A74-205 Removal of new growth from a backbulb to induce another growth may best be done when the first new growth is about 15 inches high but smaller ones have been successful; the second new growth will be slow unless the removal is made in spring. C71-223 The best time to start them is in spring or early summer. A64-656; C71-223 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Bleed Lips Is usually caused by pollination removal of the anther cap and injury to the labellum; causes reddish coloration of the lip; does not occur in albinos. AU78-143 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Blisters on Backs of Sepals and Petals, Cause Red spiders cause them, if they are without discoloration; aphids cause discolored spots and necrotic lesions. A64-693 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Blooming Frequency From the Same Bulb Most modern hybrids will bloom a second time from a green bulb but rarely for a third year. C71-199 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Blooms with Small Raised Bumps Probably caused by spider mites, plant lice or aphids; before the buds form control with malathion but add 1/2 teaspoon of liquid detergent to the spray. A78-812 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Breeding Modern efforts are aimed at producing classic exhibition greens, an FCC in reds before the end of this century; use of colchicine conversion in miniatures; the importance of the converted tetraploid C. Peter Pan 'Greensleeves'; temperature-tolerant types; pendulous types; new flower forms; pot-plant types; in England; refer to W9-145 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Brittleness in Half-grown Stems If breakage is frequent it can be attributed to a boron deficiency; dissolve one level teaspoon of borax in 1 quart of water, take one level teaspoon of the solution and put that in one quart of water, then apply one cup of the dilute to a plant once a month in late summer and fall. A63-305 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Bud Appearance Liquid insect sprays applied when buds are appearing may cause them to distort and malform. OD70-239 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Bud Blast During fall months spikes that are exposed to strong sunlight may "blast"; it is aggravated by cool to cold nights with low humidity by day; aphids may also be a cause. A66-408 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Bud Deformation It is impossible to use emulsion concentrates as wet sprays on spikes without deforming the buds even though the open flowers are not harmed; use wettable powders, with a wetting agent at the right amount, or bud curl is bound to occur. OA80-141 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Bud Drop During hot weather buds drop if the plant has an ancestor C. lowianum 'concolor' which has as its progeny C. Alexanderi 'Westonbirt'. OA86-82 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Bud Fall A problem after buds have developed at 50 deg.F.; avoid removing them to a location where night temperature exceeds 58 deg.F. because buds will likely fall off. OA79-184 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Buds and Flowers with Pimples Red spider can enter the loosely encasing final sheath on the spike and can attack the buds just before their emergence; damage is noticed near flowering size; spray early or before spikes get a good start; use Kelthane and a week later use Chlordane, at one-sixth strength, all over plants. OD70-239 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Buds Open with Brownish Spots If growing outside the buds may have been blown about by wind and rain and brushed up against leaves, etc.; hail is another possible cause; damaged cells are also prone to attack by fungi. A83-1074 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Buds, Their Peculiar Twisting When opening, petals have their edges curled inward; no sign of insects; this can be induced by high greenhouse temperatures, especially early in the morning and may be found more in the southeast or south (sunny) sides of the greenhouse. A65-910 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Buds, Their Sepal "clawing" Curling and deforming of flowers can be caused by spraying with an emulsion based concentrate such as Cygon when buds appear; use a wettable powder. A67-449 0
CYMBIDIUMS: "clawing" of Flowers Bright morning sunlight after cold nights causes this damage. AU78-143 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Clones Wrongly Named Cymbidiums Jean Brummitt AM/RHS, Cym. Pearl 'Magnificum', Cym. Peri 'Rogers', Cym. Trigo 'Royale', Cym. Tapestry 'Zita', among others are almost certainly breeding under false colors. OA79-124 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Color Control in Flowers Production of red pigments in the bud stage is affected by light intensity; high light causes intensity of color in pinks, pink blushing in whites, muddiness in greens; controls given for whites, icy greens, pinks, reds, bronzes, creams, yellows, greens; refer to A64-1063 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Commercial Flower Production Norms One plant takes 10 sq. ft. of space including walk areas; it should produce at least 60 flowers to pay its way, or six top-quality flowers per square foot. A63-897 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Commercial Growing The energy crisis gives an impetus to the move made by growers to establish themselves along the world's 35 deg.F. line, north or south of the equator, where fuel is not required. AU76-128 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Compost of Live Forest Moss Not expected to be satisfactory over a long period; would prefer a harder and more fibrous material such as peat moss and bark, for lasting quality. A65-910 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Concolor or Pure-color The advantages of such a flower are: it does not produce any red pigment; when pollen is removed or damage is incurred, the flowers do not turn reddish or collapse; these are assets when the flowers are being shipped. OA76-88+; ODA77(4)-16; genetics. OA76-214+ 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Concolor or Pure Color Albino flowers in the non-orchid genera frequently lack vigor; concolor cymbidiums are weak growers and prone to lose growths to rot, and to lose roots in winter. A079-182 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Concolor, Recessive-colored-lip Refers to a flower whose lip is devoid of customary red markings or pink suffusion; it is not necessary that the lip be the same color as the petals to be called concolor; the degree of yellow or gold in the throat is not included. A68-192 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Converted Problems of altered clones; refer to OA85-210; proposal for solution, A086-87; the 4n controversy, a scientific view, OA86-122; OR81-172 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Converted Backbulbs, Starting They will start on their own; clean them well, place upright in a flat under the bench; pot up when growth begins. A86-1031 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Cool Nights Are Required to Start Spikes A common belief, but it has not been proven; they spike in California in the hottest months of August, September and October; in Hawaii they spike at about 65 deg.F; it may be a contributing factor in some areas under certain cultural conditions. C73-100 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Crosses To have a chance of obtaining one above-average plant from a cross, a flask of 25 or 50 seedlings is needed; if you cross your own and raise 500 plants the chance is increased. AU79-97 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Culture Expert advice on light, temperature, watering and humidity, fertilizing, potting, dividing, virus and diseases, pests, etc. refer to A85-697;841 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Culture Basics The modern expertise, in some detail: Light, temperature, watering, humidity, fertilizing, repotting, mixes, diseases, and other important aspects, refer to A85-697; 841 Water weekly, never let pots get dry, even slightly; give plenty of light by day and coolness at night to promote blooming. A68-237 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Culture to Induce Spiking "full-sun" treatment can be successful; give as much sun as possible in the summer including risk of sunburn and with more water and fertilizer, OD68-244The day-night temperature change must be 20 deg.F. or more; in Hawaii plants are moved to higher elevation in the fall; in Texas desert coolers are used to lower the night temperature; elsewhere ice cubes around the bulbs have shocked the plants into spiking; in fall, also, change the high nitrogen to low nitrogen fertilizer. OD68-244 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Deformed Buds and Flowers Occasionally this is caused by low night temperatures followed by exposure to strong early morning sunlight. AH43 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Die-back of Labellum Very cold nights cause tips to die back in certain hybrids. AU78-143 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Differ From Odontoglossums They can be grown in the same cool house, but cymbidiums prefer 48 dF (9 dC), low winter nights and Odonts prefer a couple of degrees higher; cyms need more light therefore benefit from outdoors treatment in summer and prefer a temperature high of 75 to 80 Deg F. (24 to 27 dC), so give them shade at midday and spray in the evening on hot days. OR85-29 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Dividing Don't divide right after flowering but wait for new growths to appear to make sure of having flowers next season; even dividing after bud initiation in summer improves regrowth and production. OA87-162 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Divisions How soon do they flower?; blooming age plants after dividing should flower the next season; divide early in April or May; give good culture. A67-812 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Don'ts for Growers Do not overpot, overwater, allow to dry out, let leaves get direct hot sun, overshade, spray white oil on sunny days, use wet sprays on buds, overfeed with liquid fertilizer, let temperatures rise above 90 dF anytime, move plants into heated indoors, water if in doubt, stake spikes on cold mornings, water open flowers, re-use old compost, crowd plants too close, or keep virused plants (burn them), AU85-21 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Early Flowering Commercial growers risk loss of income if earlies do not make the Holiday season; they can not compete in quality with the mid-season varieties. RMH Several listed in AU78-82; nine listed in AU78-144; Cymbidium Good News, and in varieties; Cym. Vesper Bells, Cym. Noel Green, Cym. Celeya, Cym. Painley, Cym. William Everett are earlies also mentioned. C74-180 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Early Flowering, Breeding The greatest value is to the cut-flower trade; an "early" is any flower appearing before January 1, preferably December 20; based on breeding with species: Cym. erythrostylum, Cym. grandiflorum, and Cym. tracyanum, in order of importance ; the best of them in lineage combination provide the choicest results; Cym. tracyanum contributes poor lasting qualities. C72-8 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Early Flowering, Characteristics and Selections For names, etc., refer to OA76-205; OA77-5+ (Jim Burkey); also, OA74, Nov. and Dec. issues, articles by H.Sake 11. 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Early Flowering Culture A "cycle of earliness" can be maintained by advancing previous dates of the program; in Europe, dividing and repotting start just after December 25; full bloom by mid-October is achieved for many plants otherwise cut in December. OA78-166 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Early; Promoting Flowering When flowering is completed, feed well and increase the temperatures to stimulate growth as in summer; with correct cooling reduce temperatures particularly at night when growths are maturing; advice not proven. OA77-177; smaller pots make them bloom quicker or younger. OA80-9 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Eye Injuries Caused Leaves have sharp points which can damage eye-balls, so take care. OD74-136 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Feeding Program Basic is a high nitrogen fertilizer of 30-10-10 or 30-10-12, 1 tpg. every 10 days or two weeks, January to June; 6-30-30 July to December to induce spikes; a top dressing of slow release food such as hoof and horn or Osmacote, etc. OD76-82 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Fertilizer They are heavy feeders and require immediately after repotting, especially in bark. A86-382 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Fertilizer Changes Changing from high nitrogen in summer to high phosphorus/potassium in fall is based more on folklore than on fact. SA85-Dec-168 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Fertilizer for Blooms Mix your own 2-10-10: 3.6 lbs. of Ammonium phosphate (16-20-0); 1 lb. Urea (45-0-0); 5.6 lbs. Phosphoric acid (0-75-0); 10 lbs. Potassium sulphate (0-0-50); 30 lbs. water; makes 4.5 gals, concentrate; use at 1 ttpg.; cost about $2 per gal. or one cent gal. applied. OR80-66 Mix your own 4-10-10: 8 lbs. Ammonium phosphate 16-20-20; 2 lbs. Urea 45-0-0; 5 lbs. Phosphoric acid 0-75-0; 10 lbs. Potassium sulphate 0-0-50; 27 lbs. water; cost is $2.44 per gal. for 4.5 gals, concentrate; use 1 ttpg. OD80-66 Mix your own 4-20-20; consists of 10 lbs. Ammonium phosphate (12-60-0) and six lbs. of Potassium sulphate (0-0-50) at a cost of 59 cents a lb.; soluble. OD80-66 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Fertilizer Program From July to September use 16-3-27 once a week, plus a dry feed of 2 pts. Dried blood, 6 pts. Superphosphate, 2 pts. potash at the rate of 1 tablespoon to a 25cm. pot monthly; in September Dried blood is broadcast on ypung plants and washed in; October, change to 22-5-18 plus feed of 4 pts. Dried blood, 4 pts. Superphosphate, 2 pts. Potash at rate of 1 tablespoon per pot per month; Northern hemisphere months. NZ87-24 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Fertilizer Recommended Always add organic additives, especially in flasking media; top-dress plants with heated poultry manure, plus Nitrophoska red (Australia) during growing season. OA80-81At Fred A. Stewart's 30-10-10 is used for the first six months of the year and then 6-30-30 plus micronutrients for the last six. OA80-81If N,P,K figures are meaningful, a ratio of 13-5-18 for flowering should do the trick, but the ratio should not be exceeded. AU85-35 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Finest Specimens in Nature Collectors usually find the best specimens on or near fallen trees where roots can penetrate the rotten wood. A78-713 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Flower Colors and Shading Greens stay deep and clear, without muddy bronze tones, whites will stay pure (red pigment will not be enhanced) if they are shaded enough so spikes do not weaken; exceptions are reds and dark pinks which are enhanced; California experience. OA79-184 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Flowering Excessive nitrogen in late summer and fall will reduce blooming. OA83-114 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Flowering Stimulation When spikes are growing, the total quantity of nutrition absorbed increases and the fertilization with a higher E.C. or parts per million, increases quality. OA87-199 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Flower Opening Temperatures below 50 deg.F. keep the flowers from opening; over 75 deg.F. flower damage is caused. AU79-37 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Flowers Change Color Lips and columns turn abnormal red if the an- ther cap is removed by injury or watering as it makes the flowers age more rapidly and vivid changes are shown. AH86-107 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Flowers, Influencing Their Colors Addition of minerals to the potting medium may be less easy than dyeing the flowers after they open. A62-562; A62-925 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Flower Spike, or Growth Shoot? Both originate from the same eyes; outcome is influenced by time of year, day length, temperature fluctuation and sunlight intensity. OD70-238 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Flower Spike Removal Break off with clean hands rather than by cutting, to curtail spread of virus. A62-98 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Flower Spikes Generally originate from one or more of the basal eyes of the maturing new growth; or, from a year-old growth sometimes just above one that flowered the previous year; rarely on a backbulb. OD70-238 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Flushing with Tide Detergent In a hot area of California, for seven years Tide was used to flush out pots every September 1, then watered for two weeks before applying high phosphate and potash fertilizer; heavy flowering; refer to OA79-62 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Forcing Flower Production Heat is used by commercial growers to advance time of flowering; two or three weeks may be gained by raising temperatures above 55 deg.F. but less than 60 deg.F.; bud drop may occur over 60 deg.F. with poorer quality. C71-179 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Fungus Spots on Flowers Mold settles on nectar exudate and blemishes cut flowers; use a light fog spray from the back of the flower at moderate distance; spraying from the front can disturb the pollen, turn lip black bruise the flower. OD65-55 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Genetic Charts Family trees of each cymbidium given or, graphic or quantitative genetic charts lead to "profiles", relationships, pre- dictions, models of the ultimate great plants, after which we can all relax and just enjoy. OA85-85;88 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Growing Them From Seed Select brightly colored flowers for crossing, when pods split in eight to ten months, scatter the seed on the compost of the pod plant having watered it a few hours before; label; perhaps from the thousand or more seed will develop a dozen of the most vigor- ous plants; cattleya pouts can also be hosts. OR81-255 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Growing Them to Perfection Details of successful culture on all points from greenhouse to weed control in the pots; for Australian conditions, refer to A88-9 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Grown Outside If grown too cold too long and brought in to a warm area after spikes have formed, flowers will not develop properly. RMH 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Growth When Pot-bound Not advised; culture is more important; pot-bounding has little effect; many do well enough when pot-bound but only a few exceptions seem to benefit. A73-81 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Hardening of Flowers They stand up better if cut after 10 full days after opening on the stem. A63-896 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Hours of Sunlight Required to Flower It is recommended that to get them to flower they should have 1770 hours of direct sunlight. NZ86-131 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Ice Water Used to Induce Flowering Tests: in 1957 four plants produced 17 spikes the next year without ice-water eight spikes; refer to A59-244; ice treatment worked in Florida; refer to A59-596; it did not work in Florida; refer to A59-596; successful in California; refer to A59-816. 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Induced Polyploids Tetraploids induced from diploids will revolution- ize the cymbidium industry, is claim. W9-63 0
CYMBIDIUMS: In Florida Breeding and growing standard types in central Florida shows that Cym. lowianum, Cym. eburneum, Cym. insigne and some of their crosses are more likely to bloom, A84-154; 172 0
CYMBIDIUMS: In Ground Beds For advantages and disadvantages, refer to OA77-122+In mild climate zones they can be grown in a variety of mixes piled on top of well-drained garden soil, preferably very coarse bark, volcanic rock, coarse gravel; use more fertilizer than for potted plants and incorporate slow release kinds; place reds, bronzes and pinks in sunnier locations, place whites, pastels and greens in shadier areas. OA87-10 0
CYMBIDIUMS: In High Humidity Areas If the humidity is too high the roots both die and produce new ones at the same time; new growths can rot away, OA82-5 0
CYMBIDIUMS: In Summer Do not keep in a hot enclosed area (in California) in summer; they do better in an airy partially shaded location. OA78-139 0
CYMBIDIUMS: In Tennessee, Culture Outdoors in summer apply three-quarters of a lb. of 20-20-20 or 20-10-10 fertilizer per 100 gals, as a liberal dose instead of every 2nd or 3rd watering; indoors in winter they can be grown with cattleyas. A76-1102 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Intergeneric Crosses Hybrids have been made and documented with such genera as Eulophiella, Bifrenaria, Maxillaria, Zygopetalum; for illus. refer to A87-130 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Keeping-quality Tests For classifications of keeping-quality of four groups of cymbidiums totalling 102 standards and 50 miniatures, both for single flowers and spikes in water alone, or water with a preserver; re- fer to OA85-13; 203 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Leaves Folding Over Flopping of leaves is caused by lack of light. A86-479 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Mutations in Meristem Propagation Occasionally one occurs which produces a non-blooming strain, accompanied by an easily recognized grassy type of growth. OA83-114 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Natural Weather Conditions Meteorological data of Kalimpong, foothills of Himalayas, at 4,000 ft. altitude, latitude 27 deg.N. for each month; max. and min. temperatures; rainfall, etc.; January min, temp, is 45.9 deg.F.; July is 66.9 deg.F.; rainfall is 0.45 in.January, 22.9 in. July; much sun in cold months, very little sun in warm months June to September; highest temperature in July was 75.1 deg.F. OR79-99 0
CYMBIDIUMS: New Growth What develops in the fall gives the best spike production; amend the E.C. from August to October; after flowering, if new growth lags temporarily increase the nitrogen in February. OA87-162 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Night Water Sprays From July 1 on, water sprays will help produce temperature differential to make the plants spike. OD76-122 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Non-flowering Most often caused, if other factors are favorable, by too much shade morning or afternoon. OD76-122 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Nutrition Trials with seven types of slow-release fertilizers showed Osmocote (8-9 months release rate) plus dolomite and trace elements maintained growth through "summer" at 3kg per cubic metre in the basic mix. AU80-210 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Optimums Experiments on young plants at Pukekohe, N.Z., showed that at temperatures of 15 dC nights to 20 dC days produced greatest leaf area; at 12 dC to 26 dC bud initiation was best; the less shade the better over summer; frequent, almost daily fertigation produced increasing vegetative growth for 67 weeks; best medias were, 1. finest bark, 2. peat; the best fertilizer was N 170 ppm., P 40 ppm., K 140 ppm. OA86- 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Optimums (minimum) 45 deg.F. to 50 deg.F at night; 60 to 70 percent relative humidity; 4,000 fc. in winter, 8,000 fc. in summer. AU71-135 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Petal Curl on Buds Top buds mainly show it; sepals rather than petals show it; due to heredity; may well trace back to Cym. grandiflorum (syn. hookerianum); only recourse is to open the flowers "over a water tank" under high humidity, OR71-99 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Pots Standing in the Wet In rainy conditions a film of water links all plants and from an infected one can spread phytophthora, rot, fungi, bacteria, even virus. OA80-79 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Potting Mix Basic Requirements 1. high organic content, 2. good moisture retention. 3. good drainage. 4, good supply of nutrients, 5. a pH of about 5.5, 6. enough body to hold the plants firmly and retain moisture, 7. lasting quality to 2 to 4 years. OS85-50 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Potting on Plants with five to nine bulbs with no backbulbs, or only one or two, should not be divided but potted on. OD68-122 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Propagating by Backbulbs Dormant vegetative eyes on the side are capable of new growth when detached, cleaned, set in flats filled with finer bark, or placed directly into pots and shaded. A83-148 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Propagation Methods By division, by back bulbs, by layering and by meristem culture; all described in some detail, refer to OA80-182 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Propagation, the Fastest Way Make single back bulbs of a plant and grow all the pieces. A64-490 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Pseudobulbs, Mature Maturity is reached when eight to 10 leaves have grown; spike initiation should occur. OA78-166 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Red Spider Treatment Use Temik once or twice a year to discourage build-up; during flowering season the two best miticides are Pentac and Vendex plus wetting agent, because they are gentle on flowers and do not cause burning. OA80-142 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Repotting After flowering the plants are divided into 4-; or 5- bulb sections and repotted; roots may be trimmed first. A81-526Begin in January right after flowering starts; slice off an inch of the old root-ball; cut or pull off clusters of 3-, or 4-bulb sections and repot; allow space in the new pot for two years growth. A85-842; for more on the why, when and how of repotting, refer to OA81-86 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Root Injury in Potting Nearly every root more than two inches gets broken in repotting; this has little effect on the plant's ability to grow and bloom on time. A64-583 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Rot on Leaves, Had Unpleasant Smell May be Erwinia carotovora a virulent bacterial condition; bare root the plant, cut out all rot, soak roots and base in Physan or a good fungicide/bactericide for 1/2 hour, dry out, pot and run dry. OD76-122 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Seasonal Shortage of Flowers The most common reason for failure to flower in the north is shortage of growing season, not enough sunshine, which makes them permanently non-flowering; try warmth starting in February and maybe a few lights. OR82-12 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Seedlings After deflasking, start them in green moss which is available at most garden shops; roll some seedling roots in a strip of moss and place the wad in a pot as a cluster. OA86-207Always cull them; 95% are not worth keeping. OA80-9Amount of light required = they can usually take more than the adult plants. A80-1216 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Sepal Curl Can be caused by spraying with an emulsion concentrate insecticide such as Zectran. C71-199; OA78-195; or, by too much wetting agent. C72-122 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Shading Green Flowers Shade them shortly after buds are exposed from the sheath; this prevents red pigments forming to cause muddy coloration later. OA75-179 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Shipping Spikes Remove some flowers so the spike can be taped firmly to the box; tuck shredded wax paper between flowers and the box bottom and sides; loop florist cotton 1/4 in. by 3 in. in a full circle under each lip and over the top of the column; no wax paper on top of the flowers. OD65-55 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Short Stemmed May be caused by genetics, some never grow long stems; length can also be controlled by light and night temperature, the warmer the longer. OD67-54 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Sizes A "miniature" in Japan is usually about two feet from bottom of pot to the top of the plant1s spike; "intermediate" there means 3 to 4 feet; standards are the biggest; in the U.S. sizes are for the flower measurements only. OA85-196 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Soft Pseudobulbs Ooze a Bad-smelling Liquid Possibly Erwinia carotovora, bacterial bulb rot; remove all infected bulbs; spray or drench with Agrimycin. A70-1018 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Space Between Plants A simple rule evolved over time states one full space between two plants; plants too close together have always been the commonest form of cultural suicide. AU79-37 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Species' Flowering Times in the U.s. Cym. eburneum, Feb.-May; Cym. erythrostylum, Sept.-Nov.; Cym. finlaysonianum, April-Sept.; Cym. giganteum, Nov.; Cym. grandiflorum, Feb.; Cym. lowianum, April-June; Cym. pumilum, April-June; Cym. sinense, Jan.-Feb.; Cym. simulans, Summer; Cym. tracyanum, Oct.-Jan.; Cym. virescens, Spring. AU74-68; AU74-126 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Specimen Plants Use plastic tubs to reduce weight, also polystyrene as crock; not too deep a pot as compost can get wet and sour; watch for new bulbs piling on old ones in centre; remove old bulbs in centre judiciously. OR73-170 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Spikes Train them during warmer part of the day; during cold they are brittle and break easily. OA78-170; Use bamboo stakes with twist-ems or string suspended from the roof,or Nie-Co-Rol tension type with monofilament. A079-184 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Spots and Bumps on Flowers Caused by aphids, red spider or insecticide sprays. OD67-105 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Spotting in Cut Flowers It's related to four causes: disease, insects or pests, physiological spotting, or, mechanical spotting; for much detail refer to OA80-140 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Spraying in the Evening If plants are outdoors in the summer this is a good cultural practice on warm and hot days. OR85-29 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Spraying When in Bud Use of insecticides should be avoided because they often cause "burn" spotting on flowers and deforming of petals. OD66-44 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Sterility in Hybridizing For the most part, first generation miniature hybrids are sterile; most efforts to get seed from them are futile; Arno Bowers was an exception as hybridizer. A64-5 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Sterility Problems in Hybrids Suspect low-level fertility in the first generation plants can be confirmed by microscopic examination of pollen; refer to OA81-72 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Summer Growing Do not keep them in a hot enclosed space; they do better in an airy,partially shaded outdoor location. OA79-123; commercial growers do differently in the north and keep their plants in the greenhouse where heat is sometimes needed. RMH 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Symptoms of Calcium Deficiency Not easy to spot; first sign may be reduced spiking; use dolomite lime; a soluble fertilizer likely provides enough calcium. OD71-278 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Symptoms of Magnesium Deficiency Causes a yellowing of plants; try adding Epsom salts to the nitrogen-rich fertilizer. OD71-278 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Symptoms of Nitrogen Deficiency Very yellow foliage, less vigorous growth, plant looks stunted. OD71-278 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Symptoms of Phosphorous Deficiency Plant won't bloom; lack of phosphorous causes delay in reaching maturity. OD71-278 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Symptoms of Potassium Deficiency Leaves of older growths tend to turn yellow, starting from the tip and working toward the pseudobulb. OD71-278 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Temperature Change Required for Flowering 25 deg.F. between night and day; moving them outside in summer may result in lack of flowering; cool nights and hot sunny greenhouse days may bring on flowering. OD76-2 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Temperatures and Growing Requirements The minimum night temperature is from 40 deg.F. to 45 deg.F, with the maximum during the day in the low 80's, for Southern California. OD76-82 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Temperatures At Night At a night temperature of 59 deg.F., 10% of plants bloomed; at 54 deg.F., 50% bloomed, and at 46 deg. to 50 deg.F, 100% of test groups bloomed, and with extra spikes. A62-877 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Temperatures Required Summers as cool as possible; in fall nights of 50 deg.F.; fall days can run to 70 deg.F, but as winter comes on lower the days to 60 deg.F.; the early flowering types will develop with the shortening days; in spring the night temperature can be raised to 55 deg.F. A57-120 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Temperatures Required to Set Buds For flowers to appear in November to January start cooling the previous March to May to 55-60 deg.F.; for flowers to appear January to March, cool to 55 deg.F. if possible in June to August; some variants mentioned. A77-198 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Temperature to Set Buds The low temperature does not matter, it's the swing of about lO dC from day to night, just as the bulb is about to mature that matters. AU84-278 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Temperature to Set Flowers Nights in December and early January should be 50 dF or lower temperature, increased to 55 dF a bit later in the season; when the flowers are developing the rise should be to 60 dF; the daytime range should be 5 to 8 degrees above the nightime range; when spikes begin to stretch, raise to 65 dF. A80-1140 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Tetraploids, Spontaneous Alexanderi 'Westonbirt'; Pauwelsii 'Comte de Hempjtinne'; Rosanna 'Pinkie'; Shirley 'McBean's' ; Babylon 'Castle Hill'; Babylon 'Carpentier'; Vieux Rose 'Dell Park'; Pearl Easter 'McBean's'; Dorama 'Fairfield'; Early Bird 'Pacific'; Palomar 'Snow White'; Palomar 'Denali'; Wallara 'Gold Nugget'; Irish Melody. AU74-68 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Tissue Culture Knudson C medium enriched with banana homogenate at lOO gr. produces larger protocorms and millions of them; mericloning has spread virus to epidemic proportions; five ways to prevent its spread; refer to SA84Jn-69 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Trace Elements Required Main ones are iron, magnesium, molybdenum, and boron. A88-11 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Under Gro-lux Lamps All need high light so are not good for culture under lights; miniatures need a little less light than standards but more warmth. A70-1018 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Warm Growing Eleven years of hybridizing in Belle Glade, Florida to obtain successful plants indicated that Cym. chloranthum and C.parishii, and the Cym. complex ensifolium are most likely the key to success; refer to OD79-120+ 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Watering From November to January root absorption is limited, so water lightly at that time especially for the late bloomers; for drainage use styrofoam granules under a layer of rockwool. OA87-163 0
CYMBIDIUMS: Yellows and Greens They do not bloom reliably until they grow up to large tub size. OA83-114 0

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